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Home>  Dig.Jain Dharma>>   THE TWELVE ANGAS


  Bhagwan  Mahavira's teachings were carried on by his ganadharas to us in the form of scriptures (Agams or Angas). They were compiled into twelve separate parts, known as Angagama or Angas or the dwadashangi (twelve parts). The knowledge of Sruti, Sruta-Jnana, which are contained in the Anga (Limbs or sacred books of the Jainas) or the things outsides of Anga,. This  Jaina Sacred Literature  is mostly lost today as by Digambara sect. 
 These 12 parts of Anga or Anagama are:

1.The Ćchįra-anga comprises a full exposition of the  rules of conduct  for ascetics.  It contains 18,000 Madhyama Padas. 
2. The Sūtrakrita-anga comprises a detailed exposition of knowledge,  humility  etc., of  religious rites, and difference between the rites of one's own religion and those of the  other one-sided views. It contains 36,000 Madhyama Padas.
3. The Sthāna-anga comprises  an  exposition  of  one  or  more  sthānas,  or numerical   points of view in considering Jīva (Soul), Pudgala (Matter) and other Dravyas. While   the Jīva-dravya or soul id from the point of view of consciousness one  and the same    everywhere, from the point of view of being liberated (siddha) or mundane (samsārin)   it is of two kinds. Similarly the samsārin, or mundane Jīva, that soul not  yet perfectly   freed from the bondage of karmas which keep it moving in the cycle of  existences, is  of three kinds - one-sensed immobile  (sthāvara), not full-sensed  (vikalendriya),  and   in possession  of  all the  organs   of  the  senses  or  full-sensed  (sakalendriya).  The   liberated souls  too,  are  of  many kinds  from  the  point  of  view  of  place,  time  etc.  This anga contains 42,000 Madhyama Padas. 
4. The Samavāya-anga gives an account of the similarities that  arise from the point of  view of Dravya (elements of the universe), Ksetra  (place),  Kāla  (time),  and Bhāva  (character).  From  the  point  of  view  of  dravya,   Dharma  and  Adharma  are alike  (that is, both are constituent elements of the universe). From  the  point  of  view  of  place,  the  breadth of human region,  and  of  the  first central hole  of  the  first  hell (indrakabila), and the first central car or abode of  the  first  heaven (indrakavimāna),  and the abode of siddhas are alike. From the point of view of time, the Utsarpini and    Avasarpini, the ascending and descending arcs or eras are alike.  From  the point  of   view of bhāva, right-belief and right-knowledge are the same. This Anga has 164,000  Madhyama Padas.
5. The  Vyākhyā-prajńapti-anga   gives  an  acoount  of  the   60,000   questions which  the chief disciples put to the  Omniscient Lord, the Trithamkara,  with  their  answers.  It has 228,000 Madhyama Padas.
6.The  Jńātridharma-kathā-anga   is   also   called    Dharma-Kathā-anga.  It  gives  an  exposition in detail of the nature ect., of the nine padarthas  Jiva  etc.,  as   well  as  the  answers to  questions   which   the  Ganadharas   put   to   the   Lord.   It   has   556,000  Madhyama Padas.
7. The Upāsakādhyayna-anga gives details of the eleven stages  of a householder's   life,  the vows of chastity etc., and other rules  of conduct  for  the  householder's,  as  well  as aphorisms and lectures on the same. It has 1,170,000 Madhyama Padas.
8. The Antakrit-daša-anga gives account in detail of the ten ascetics who, in the period  of each of the twenty-four Trithamkaras, undergo very  strict  suffering  in  asceticism  and  finally  set  themselves   free    from   the  bondage   of  Karma.   It   has   2,328,000  Madhyama Padas.
9. The Anuttaropapādaka-daša-anga  gives  an  acoount  of  the ten great ascetics who,   in the period of  each  Trithamkaras, practice  asceticism  of  a  very  high  type  and  in  virtue of that take birth in the five Anuttaravimānas, or heavens, such as  Vijaya etc. It  has 9,244,000 Madhyama Padas.
10. The  Prašna-vyākarana-anga  gives  instructions  as  to  how  to reply  to questions  relating to past and  future  time,  gain and loss, happiness and misery, life and death,  good and evil, etc.  It  also furnishes an account of  the  four kinds  of narration,  viz.,  Āksepanī (substantiation),  Viksepanī  (refutation), Samvedanī (devotion), Nirvedanī   (renunciation). It has 9,316,000 Madhyama Padas.
11. The  Vipāka-sūtra-anga  contains  an   exposition  of   the  bondage,  operation, and  existence  of Karmas, and of  their  intensity  or  mildness from  the point  of view  of   dravya, ksetra, kāla and bhāva. It has 18,400,000 Madhyama Padas. 
12. The Drishti-pravāda-anga has 1,086,856,005 Madhyama Padas. It is  divided into five  parts:  five  Parikarmas,   Sūtra,   Prathamānuyoga,  fourteen   Pūrva-gatas,  and    five   Chūlikās. These five parts will be considered one by one.                      




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