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 Six daily duties are recommended for the lay Jain. These are not compulsory rules but advisable practices to help spiritual development.  Here they are:  
(1)   meditation and prayer,  
(2)   honor to the Tirthankara,  
(3)   respect for spiritual teachers,  
(4)   repentance for the things one has done wrong,  
(5)   control of the body by holding a fixed position during meditation,  
(6)   renunciation of certain pleasures, activities, foods, fora fixed time.  
  Somadeva, a great teacher of the 10th century A. D., in a widely-read list of duties. included charity and reading the scriptures. The religious life of the individual is helped by a regular routine of religious practice. Whilst  religion will permeate the whole life of the pious Jain, he or she will also want to set aside some time each day to concentrate the mind on religion. This may be a time of meditation, or it may be accompanied by ritual actions, it may take place in the home or, if a temple is convenient, in the temple, or in a meditation hall. A short  time set aside each day (the traditional period is forty-eight minutes) in a quiet place is possible for all of us. The mind is calmed, passions are reduced, self-control develops.  Reference has been made to the Pancha Namaskara , the best-known prayer of the Jains, It is a formula .of surrender, not  request, to the five categories of praise worthy individuals. The rolling sounds of the ancient language echo at every Jain religious gathering, chanted by all the people, who learned it in childhood.  
Namo arihantanam           I bow to the enlightened souls  
Namo siddhanam
               I bow to the liberated souls  
Namo ayariyanam
             I bow to religious leaders  
Namo uvajjhayanam
         I bow to religious teachers  
Namo loe sawa sahunam
  I bow to all the monks in the world   
Eso pamca namokkara savva pavappanasano mamgalanam casavvesim padhamam havai
  This fivefold salutation which destroys all sin is pre-eminent as the most auspicious of all auspicious things.  
Samayika really means equanimity: the practice of samayika  involves meditation, usually for a fixed period of forty-eight minutes. At its simplest it is performed in any quiet  place. The person sits quietly cross-legged like a monk ( for  samayika is sometimes seen as a temporary ascetic state), and turns the mind to compassion and friendship with all living  beings, and to separation from all desire and hatred.  Sometimes the devotee will recite verses which have been  learned in the ancient  Ardha Magadhi  language of the  scriptures, asking forgiveness, promising virtuous conduct and praising the great figures of the Jain religion.  Sometimes samayika may be carried out in the presence of a  religious teacher. The devotee will bow to the monk and recite a formula of dedication and confession before  commencing meditation. The spiritual presence of the teacher  will have a beneficial effect.  
  Jains will often use a simple religious formula as a focus  for meditation, or will meditate before an image of theTirthankaratirthankara, or perhaps diagrams on cloth or metal depicting  in graphic form objects and persons of the faith. A Jain home  will quite probably have at least one image, perhaps in an elaborate and beautiful shrine.   
  Some Jains (the Sthanakvasi sect) do not believe that images should be used but for the majority of Jains more elaborate  rituals are advocated. It is important to remember that the  rituals are intended to concentrate the mind. The material  objects, the actions, the words, are all means to an end, not an end in themselves. Different groups of Jains in different  parts of India will, of course, carry out the rituals with some variations.  
 A pious Jain who lives conveniently near a temple may carry out the worship of the Tirthankara  image in the temple daily  before going to work. Otherwise it may be performed before  the shrine at home.  Bathed and dressed simply, possibly only  in two pieces of cloth like a monk, he will bow before the  image and recite the Pancha Namaskara . He will pass three  times around the image (which in a Jain temple is set forward  from the rear wall) . He may perform the ritual washing of  the image with water and milk and a mixture of sandlewood and  saffron, or it may be done by a regular official of the  temple. Although women take an active part in Jain rituals  their role is somewhat simplified.  
  Various offerings are now made before the image.  Grains of  rice are arranged in the symbolic figure of Jainism, a  swastika (denoting the four possible kinds of rebirth, ash eavenly beings, humans, lower living beings, or creatures of hell) having above it three dots (the Three Jewels of Right  Faith, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct), and at the top a  single dot within a crescent for the final resting place of he liberated souls. The other offerings may be flowers, incense, fruit and sweets though the practice varies. After other prayers the Pancha Namaskara is repeated. This will be  followed by the Chaitya Vandana, the temple prayers of  reverent salutation: these commence with a formula of repentance for any harm caused to living creatures on the way to the temple; salutations follow to the twenty-four Tirthankara and to all monks and nuns; then the virtues and  good deeds of all the Tirthankara follow and the devotee  expresses the desire and intention to emulate them. In his or her devotions the worshipper does not seek worldly favor but  sees the Jinajina as a divine example to be respected and  followed. The worship concludes with the rather beautiful  ceremony of arati (aarti), the waving of fivefold lights before the image. The image is, of course, only a symbolic representation of the Tirthankara and is in no sense a living  god. Nevertheless it is considered necessary that a fully-consecrated image should receive daily attention and worship. 
A special beauty is given to the rituals by the language in which they are performed.  Ardha Magadhi  was the language of the ancient Magadha region in north-east India where Mahavira  lived. It was the familiar speech of the people, a 'Prakritprakrit' or popular language as distinguished from the classical  Sanskrit of the orthodox scholars.  Although no longer a  spoken language, Ardha Magadhi is used today in Jain prayers and rituals, not only for the sonorous splendor of its  rolling sounds but also because a Jain, what ever his or her native tongue, can follow the familiar prayers and chants.  Every Jain will have learned from childhood at least a few  recitations and can take part in temple prayers with other Jains with whom he or she may not share a common modern  language. 
   Other practices are recommended as beneficial to the  spiritual development of the individual. Monks and nuns receive great honor from the laity and it is a meritorious  thing to pay one's respects formally to them on occasion and  to make a confession in set terms of one's faults and  misdeeds. It is, of course, a duty of the laity, and one giving great merit, to provide food and other necessaries for  the mendicants. Another recommended practice which we must  mention is the reading of the scriptures, for these enshrine the wisdom and example which can help a Jain greatly on the  spiritual path. Jains are very generous to Jain charitable  objects: again merit ensues to the individual who contributes  to temple buildings, religious education, refuges for animals  and the like.  
  Needless to say, not every Jain manages to fit a full schedule of religious activities into every working day. What  follows is the simple daily routine recommended for a pious Jain. He or she will get up an hour and a half before sunrise  and will commence the day with the Pancha Namaskara and other  prayers. Reflecting on the spiritual advancement of the soul, the pious Jain will recite sincerely the Pratikramana, the  formula of contrition for harm and misdeeds.  A visit to the  temple follows as described above. Then the monks are visited, respectfully greeted and their needs cared for, or if there are no monks there, is given to fellow Jains or others who need it. If there is time it may be possible to  hear a sermon from a learned monk. The religious person will  not eat at night, nor in the first forty-eight minutes of the  day, so breakfast is deferred until now. The daily work will, of course, occupy most of the day, broken by a period of  prayer before the mid day meal. The last meal of the day should finish before sunset. There will be an evening visit  to the temple for worship and aarti, the ceremonial waving of  lights before the image.  The day will end with a further  repetition of the prayer of repentance and perhaps reading  the scriptures. With the mind calm, forgiving all others and  seeking forgiveness, the Jain goes to bed, and if sleep is disturbed calms the mind again with scriptures or the Pancha  Namaskara .
An important part of Jain spiritual training is the control  of the body, so that hardship and suffering are accepted  even-mindedly, the passions are reduced, the inflow of karma  is lessened and existing karma is shed.  The lay person will  share, in lesser degree, in the austerities of the monastic  life.  Austerity (tapas)  can take various forms. Essentially, however, it needs to be approached with the right attitude, not seeking worldly reward nor allowing mental disturbance to result. Of the six 'external' austerities, four are concerned  with food, fasting (which is often undertaken on the set fasting days each month), eating less than enough to satisfy hunger, going without food unless some arbitrary outside  condition is fulfilled, avoiding more tasty foods. Jains do take these seriously and food restrictions are a common form  of self-discipline.  Solitariness or seclusion for the  avoidance of temptation is the fifth austerity, and the sixth is the acceptance of deliberate physical hardship in one form or  another. Linked with these are six internal austerities, repentance, respect to monks and nuns, service to them, study of the sacred scriptures, detachment from the body and  passions and lastly deep meditation. These are all part of the spiritual training of the monk. but the lay person can also, though without the same single  mindedness, share in  these austerities.



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